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Cincinnati Red Stockings

By Patrick Mondout

The Cincinnati Base-Ball Club of Cincinnati (popularly known as the Red Stockings) receive credit as the first all-professional baseball team. They are perhaps the most celebrated team of the Reconstruction Era despite never winning an official NABBP championship nor lasting long enough to participate in the National Association.

At a glance...
Club Facts
Established July 23, 1866
Disbanded  November, 1870
Located Cincinnati, Ohio
Alfred T. Goshorn (president)
Aaron Champion (vice-president)
Thomas G. Smith (vice-president)
Henry Glassford (secretary)
E.E. Townley (treasurer/secretary)
Drausin Wulsin (director)
S.S. Davis (director)
Nick L. Anderson (director)
Al G. Corre (director)
William Worthington (scorer)
Oak Taylor (scorer)
George B. Ellard (manager)
Year by Year Results
  W L T
1866  2 2  
1867  17 1  
1868  36 7  
'69 Pro  19 0  
'69 All 57 0  
'70 Pro  27 6 1
'70 All 67 6 1
NABBP (1866-1870)
Red Stockings of Cincinnati
Union Cricket Club Grounds (1867-70)

The Red Stockings were not the first team to pay a player—charges of that date to at least 1860, the rules were amended to disallow pros in 1858 (presumably because it had become a problem), and the 1866 Athletic of Philadelphia were investigated for paying, among others, Lip Pike—but they were the first openly, all-professional team (teams in New York soon joined them).

See also: National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, Defunct Leagues, 'Early Baseball' Terminology.

The club was organized July 23, 1866 at the Cincinnati law office of Tilden, Sherman & Moulton as the Resolute Base Ball Club of Cincinnati, but outfielder William Johnson soon convinced the others to that it should simply be called the Cincinnati Base Ball Club. The club was nicknamed the "Red Stockings" for the color of the stockings they wore beginning in 1868. The color red has been used by professional baseball teams in Cincinnati ever since.

The club's origins in a law office was no accident. Many of the players on the first team were Cincinnati-area lawyers.

The team's first season in the NABBP can be termed a success as their only loss was to the Washington Nationals (by a score of 53-10), who were on the first big baseball tour—something the Red Stockings would duplicate in two years. It should be noted, however, that Cincinnati's 16 wins in 1867 were against obscure regional teams from Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio and the team was by no means one of the best in the country.

The club used a park called the Millcreek Bottoms near Richmond Street before leasing the Union Cricket Grounds. The opening game at the grounds took place on July 4, 1867 and saw the home team blow out Louisville 60-24 (such scores were common in the early days; they averaged over 80 runs per game in their three games against a team from Newport, Kentucky that year and had 31 homers in one of those games, including 7 by John Howe).

As baseball replaced cricket as the spectator sport (in Cincinnati and the nation), club officials were able to come to an agreement with the Union Cricket Club of Cincinnati that allowed many members of the cricket team to join the baseball club. This included Harry Wright, a former New York Cricket Club star who had been attracted to the city by the offer of $1200 a year from the Unions' George B. Ellard in 1865 to be both a player and instructor. Wright had also been a catcher for the Knickerbockers.

Club and city officials wanted a first rate club to give prestige to Cincinnati and gave Harry Wright the green light to bring in better - and more expensive talent. Despite the NABBP still officially being an amateur organization (cheating and baseball have a long and glorious history), the Red Stockings signed some of the best ballplayers in the country over the next three years. Asa Brainard and John Hatfield of the Mutuals of New York and Charlie Gould of the Buckeyes of Cincinnati (a close rival) were enticed to join and the result was a club capable of competing with any club in the country.

The club played a schedule that included several of the finest clubs in the nation in 1868 and managed a record of 36-7, which was fourth best in the NABBP. The New York Clipper offered gold medals to players that they rated the best in the country at each position. Three medals were won by Red Stockings: J. Hatfield, as left fielder; Fred Waterman, as third baseman, and J. William Johnson in right field.

Club officials believed they were close to competing for the championship and, as we might say today, just needed a few more pieces to win in 1869.

The first move was to bring in Harry's brother George, who was certainly one of the top five players in the game and who had played for the Nationals in 1867 and the champion Unions of Morrisania the previous year. Charlie Sweasy, Andy Leonard and substitute Dick Hurley were secured from the rival Cincinnati Buckeyes (who had gone 21-5 in 1868) and eighteen-year-old catcher/outfielder Cal McVey was brought in from Indianapolis, where he had played for the Active Club. This improved the team dramatically and shifted the balance of power in baseball from the East to the Midwest for the first time. But it was a costly decision. The club was able to raise $3,000 from a stock offering in November of 1868, but that still left it $6,000 in debt.

[Note: Harry Ellard wrote a book covering Cincinnati baseball in the 1860s called Baseball in Cincinnati that was published in 1907. Ellards's book is the BaseballChronology Book of the Month selection for June, 2008. Read it in its entirety here.]

The next month, the NABBP finally gave in to the growing trend and created a separate classification of professional teams within its ranks. Teams could now openly sign players and the Red Stockings, who would soon be as much as $16,000 in debt (that is approximately $413,000 in 2005 dollars, using the Calculated Consumer Price Index), were the most open of all and soon embarked on a legendary tour to take on the best clubs in the land as the Washington Nationals had famously done in 1867.

The 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings.

While the team managed to go undefeated in 1869 (57-0, including 19-0 against other pro teams; the Troy Haymakers played them to a 17-17 tie on August 27, though the umpire declared them the winner in a disputed match in which Troy left the field), the strange rules of the NABBP prevented the team from winning the championship. In fact, they did not lose a game from late 1868 until June 14, 1870 (when Brooklyn beat them 8-7 in extra innings), including a series to end the '69 season with the 1868 champion New York Mutuals. The Brooklyn Eckfords beat them to the punch by beating the Mutuals in a series first, making the team from Brooklyn champions until the Brooklyn Atlantics knocked them off later in the 1869 season. The Atlantics finished the season without anyone else beating them twice and were thus champions for that season. The method of determining the champion was both confusing and controversial and most considered the Red Stockings the true champions of 1869.

George Wright had what might today be called a "career year." In 483 times at the plate, he walked 56 times, hit 49 homers, and stuck out zero times. That latter number has something to do with the rules of the day, but his statistics were unparallel in the sport.

1869 Salaries
$800 Doug Allison
$1100 Asa Brainard
$800 Charlie Gould
$1200 Harry Wright
$1000 Fred Waterman
$1400 George Wright
$800 Andy Leonard
$800 Charlie Sweasy
$800 Cal McVey
$600 Dick Hurley

The 1869 Red Stockings traveled 11,877 miles to play before an estimated 200,000 spectators (as "fans" were then known as), and had a player payroll of $9,300. The team headed as far west as California and as far south as New Orleans, but high cost of travel and salaries meant that the team was still $1000 in debt despite the most successful on-the-field performance in baseball history. The table on the right shows the salaries it paid from March 15 to November 15 of 1869.

The team hoped to make up the difference during the ice skating season. All but hardcore 19th Century baseball fans will wonder what I could possibly mean by that, but the club had assumed ownership of the Union Grounds as cricket became less popular and many northern ballparks were set up for ice skating during the winter months. The weather did not cooperate in the winter of 1869-70 and the team had to look to civic leaders for funds to undertake the 1870 season.

The team found the necessary funds and had a more successful (financially) eastern trip and found itself with over $2,000 in the bank for the first time by August of 1870. Officials of the team, who had been hiding the bad economic news from the shareholders, took the opportunity to share these positive figures with shareholders. But local investors had apparently had enough.

A contemporary report claims that the club "officers would have retained George and Harry Wright, Gould and McVey, if too much money had not been demanded" and that "others were not wanted (back) on account of objectionable habits or traits." Teams in Boston and Washington took on these overpaid players of objectionable habits (or traits) and didn't complain. These sour grapes remind one of the Texas Rangers owner who openly complained about how salaries were out of control about a year after signing a certain shortstop to a quarter of a billion dollar contract. Who created the problem?

The team thus disbanded on or about November 24, 1870 without ever competing in the first Major League. (Queen City fans who thought they could trace their Reds back to this team—and that includes the folks who created the Reds official history site—need a history lesson.) It should be noted that while the unusual rules of the day prevented Cincinnati from winning a championship, most followers of the game considered them the champs of at least 1869 if not 1870 as well. 

How good were the '69 Red Stockings? The Wrights, McVey, and Gould signed with the '71 Boston Red Stockings and formed the nucleus of a team that never finished lower than second in the National Association and won four straight championships.

Year-by-Year Results for the Red Stockings
1866 Results Red Stockings Opponents
September 29. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati, O. 18 20
October 18. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati, O. 53 21
October 26. Copecs, of Covington, Ky. 27 21
October 27. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati, O. 31 41
1867 Results Red Stockings Opponents
May 25. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati, O. 53 40
May 30. Holts, of Newport, Ky. 82 33
June 10. Louisvilles, of Louisville, Ky. 42 19
June 22. Holts, of Newport, Ky. 93 22
July 4. Louisvilles, of Louisville, Ky. 60 24
July 11. Live Oaks, of Cincinnati, O. 56 18
July 15. Nationals, of Washington, D.C. 10 53
Aug. 9. Live Oaks, of Cincinnati, O. 51 21
Aug. 29. Great Westerns, of Cincinnati, O. 34 27
Sept. 2. Holts, of Newport, Ky. 109 15
Sept. 6. Louisvilles, of Louisville, Ky. 44 22
Sept. 7. Olympics, of Washington, D.C. 77 17
Sept. 14. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati, O. 28 20
Sept. 26. Hickories, of McConnelsville, O. 28 16
Oct. 5. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati, O. 49 23
Oct. 12. Great Westerns, of Cincinnati, O. 17 15
Oct. 19. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati, O. 37 23
Oct. 25. Actives, of Indianapolis, Ind. 44 24
1868 Results Red Stockings Opponents
May 6. Great Westerns, of Cincinnati 41 7
May 9. Xenias, of Xenia, O. 51 19
May 21. Copecs, of Covington, Ky. 30 14
May 23. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati 28 10
May 30. Live Oaks, of Cincinnati 72 5
June 6. Athletics, of Philadelphia, Pa. 13 20
June 11. Riversides, of Portsmouth, O. 59 17
June 20. Miamis, of Yellow Springs, O. 71 12
June 27. Xenias, of Xenia, O. 60 13
July 2. Railway Unions, of Cleveland, O. 52 16
July 4. Unions, of St. Louis, Mo. 70 7
July 6. Athletics, of Philadelphia, Pa. 19 40
July 13. Copecs, of Covington, Ky. 53 4
July 24. Riversides, of Portsmouth, O. 34 16
July 27. Live Oaks, of Cincinnati 53 11
July 29. Live Oaks, of Cincinnati 48 3
Aug. 3. Railway Unions, of Columbus, O. 34 16
Aug. 4. Capitols, of Columbus, O. 43 5
Aug. 5. Hickories, of McConnelsville, 0 59 16
Aug. 6. Baltics, of Wheeling, W. Va. 66 8
Aug. 7. Mears, of Steubenville, O. 60 20
Aug. 8. Olympics, of Pittsburg, Pa 29 14
Aug. 10. Alleghenies, of Allegheny City, Pa 25 13
Aug. 12. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 44 22
Aug. 24. Unions, of Morrisania, N. Y 8 12
Aug. 25. Unions, of Morrisania, N. Y. 13 12
Aug. 29. Buckeyes, of Cincinnati 20 12
Sept. 14. Actives, of Indianapolis, Ind 54 7
Sept. 16. Live Oaks, of Cincinnati 38 17
Sept. 17. Great Westerns, of Cincinnati 38 2
Sept. 19. Excelsiors, of Rochester, N. Y. 27 11
Sept. 20. Excelsiors, of Rochester, N. Y. 22 4
Sept. 23. Nationals, of Washington, D. C. 16 10
Sept. 24. Olympics, of Washington, D. C. 9 22
Sept. 25. Enterprises, of Baltimore, Md. 24 3
Sept. 27. Athletics, of Philadelphia, Pa. 12 15
Sept. 28. Olympics, of Philadelphia, Pa. 41 20
Oct. 1. Atlantics, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 12 31
Oct. 2. Mutuals, of New York City, N. Y. 29 28
Oct. 3. Unions, of Morrisania, N. Y. Refused to play
Oct. 4. Keystones, of Philadelphia, Pa. 22 24
Oct. 6. Unions or Haymakers, of Lansingburg, N. Y. 27 8
Oct. 7. Excelsiors, of Rochester, N. Y. 21 11
Oct. 8. Niagaras, of Buffalo, N. Y. 24 8
Oct. 9. Nationals, of Albany, N. Y. 17 1
Oct. 11. Railway Unions, of Cleveland, O. 41 8
Oct. 12. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 33 14
Oct. 17. Picked Nine, of Cincinnati 32 15
Nov. 2. Picked Nine, of Cincinnati 38 21
1869 Results     Reds    Opponents  
Apr. 17. Picked Nine 24 15  
24. Picked Nine 50 7  
May 4. Great Western, Cincinnati 45 9  
10. Kekionga, Fort Wayne, Ind 86 8  
15. Antioch, Yellow Springs, O. 41 7  
22. Kekionga, Fort Wayne, Ind. 41 7  
29. Great Western, Mansfield, O. 35 5 (3 innings)
June 1. Independents, Mansfield, O. 48 14  
2. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 25 6  
3. Niagara, Buffalo, N. Y. 42 6  
4. Alerts, Rochester, N. Y. 18 9  
7. Haymakers, Troy, N. Y. 37 31  
8. Nationals, Albany, N. Y. 49 8  
9. Mutuals, Springfield, Mass. 80 5  
10. Lowell, Boston, Mass. 29 9  
11. Tri-Mountain, Boston, Mass 40 12  
12. Harvards, Boston, Mass. 30 11  
15. Mutuals, New York 4 2  
16. Atlantics, Brooklyn, N. Y. 32 10  
17. Eckfords, Brooklyn, N. Y. 24 5  
18. Irvingtons, New Jersey 20 4  
19. Olympics, Philadelphia, Pa. 22 11  
21. Athletics, Philadelphia, Pa. 27 18  
22. Keystones, Philadelphia, Pa. 45 30  
24. Marylands, Baltimore, Md. 47 7  
25. Nationals, Washington, D. C. 24 8  
28. Olympics, Washington, D. C. 16 5  
30. Baltics, Wheeling, W. Va. 44 0 (3 innings)
July 1. Picked Nine 53 11  
3. Olympics, Washington, D. C. 25 14  
5. Olympics, Washington, D. C. 32 10  
10. Forest City, Rockford, Ill. 34 13  
13. Olympics, Washington, D. C. 19 7 (7 innings)
22. Buckeyes, Cincinnati 71 15 (5 innings)
24. Forest City, Rockford, Ill. 15 14 (4 innings)
28. Empires, St. Louis, Mo. 15 0  
30. Cream City, Milwaukee, Wis 85 7  
31. Forest City, Rockford, Ill 53 32  
Aug. 2. Forest City, Rockford, Ill. 28 7  
4. Central City, Syracuse, N. Y. 37 9  
5. Central City, Syracuse, N. Y. 36 22 (8 innings)
6. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 43 27  
11. Riversides, Portsmouth, O. 40 0  
16. Eckfords, Brooklyn, N. Y. 45 18  
23. Southern, New Orleans, La. 35 3  
27. Haymakers, Troy, N. Y. 17 17 (5 innings)
31. Buckeyes, Cincinnati 103 8  
Sept. 9. Olympics, Pittsburg, Pa 54 2  
10. Alerts, Rochester, N. Y. 32 19  
On their California trip they won as follows:
Sept. 15. Unions, St. Louis, Mo. 70 9  
16. Empires, St. Louis, Mo 31 9  
26. Eagles, San Francisco, Cal. 35 4  
27. Eagles, San Francisco, Cal. 58 4  
29. Pacifies, San Francisco, Cal. 66 4  
30. Pacifies, San Francisco, Cal. 54 5  
Oct. 1. Atlantics, San Francisco, Cal 76 5 (5 innings)
11. Omahas, Omaha, Neb. 65 1 (7 innings)
12. Otoes, Omaha, Neb. 56 3 (5 innings)
13. Occidentals, Quincy, Ill. 51 7  
15. Marions, Marion, Ind. 63 4  
Oct. 18. Athletics, Philadelphia, Pa. 17 12  
22. Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 59 8  
24. Cedar Hill, Cedar Hill, O. 40 10  
Nov. 4. Eagles, Covington, Ky. 40 10 (6 innings)
5. Mutuals, New York, N. Y. 17 8  
1870 Results     Reds    Opponents  
Apr. 18. Picked Nine, Cincinnati 34 5  
21. Eagles, Louisville, Ky. 94 7  
25. Pelicans, New Orleans, La 51 1  
26. Southerns, New Orleans, La. 79 6  
28. Atlantics, New Orleans, La. 39 6 (8 innings)
29. Lone Stars, New Orleans, La. 26 7  
30. Robert E. Lees, New Orleans, La. 24 4  
May 4. Orientals, Memphis, Tenn. 100 2  
6. Picked Nine, Cincinnati 37 19  
7. Picked Nine, Cincinnati 42 17  
8. College Hills, Cincinnati 72 10  
12. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 12 2  
13. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 12 2  
20. Riversides, Portsmouth, O. 32 3  
23. Orions, Lexington, Ky. 74 0  
25. Unions, Urbana, O. 108 3  
26. Daytons, Dayton, O. 104 9  
31. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 27 13  
June 1. Flour Citys, Rochester, N. Y. 12 2  
2. Ontarios, Oswego, N. Y. 46 4  
3. Old Elms, Pittsfield, Mass. 65 17  
4. Harvards, Boston, Mass. 46 15  
6. Lowells, Boston, Mass. 17 4  
8. Clippers, Lowell, Mass. 32 5  
9. Tri-mountains, Boston, Mass. 30 6  
10. Fairmounts, Worcester, Mass. 74 19  
13. Mutuals, New York City, N. Y. 16 3  
14. Atlantics, Brooklyn, N. Y. 7 5 lost
15. Unions, Morrisania, N. J. 14 0  
16. Resolutes, Elizabeth, N. J. 22 7  
17. Eckfords, Brooklyn, N. Y. 24 7  
18. Stars, Brooklyn, N. Y. 16 11  
20. Amateurs, Newark, N. J. 53 2  
21. Intrepids, Philadelphia, Pa. 52 14  
22. Athletics, Philadelphia, Pa. 27 25  
23. Keystones, Philadelphia, Pa. 37 26  
24. Pastimes, Baltimore, Md. 30 8  
25. Marylands, Baltimore, Md. 30 8  
27. Olympics, Washington, D. C. 35 25 (8 innings)
28. Nationals, Washington, D. C. 30 10  
July 2. Forest City, Rockford, Ill. 14 13  
5. Forest City, Rockford, Ill. 24 7  
9. Picked Nine, Cincinnati. 56 19  
11. Forest City, Rockford, Ill. 16 16 tie
13. Kekiongas, Fort Wayne, Ind. 70 1  
16. Eagles, Louisville, Ky. 25 13  
18. Harvards, Boston, Mass. 20 17  
27. Athletics, Philadelphia, Pa. 7 11 lost
30. Mutuals, New York City, N. Y. 15 12  
Aug. 5. Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Ind. 61 8  
6. Olympics, Washington, D. C. 38 3  
9. Haymakers, Troy, N. Y. 34 8  
22. Live Oaks, Cincinnati 45 2  
23. Amateurs, Washington C. H., O. 72 6  
27. Riversides, Portsmouth, O. 29 27  
Sept. 2. Atlantics, Brooklyn, N. Y. 14 3  
7. White Stockings, Chicago, Ill. 6 10 lost
15. Riversides, Portsmouth, O 12 1  
21. Resolutes, Hamilton, O. 36 4  
27. Empires, St. Louis, Mo. 7 5  
28. Unions, St. Louis, Mo. 28 1  
Oct. 6. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 18 15  
13. White Stockings, Chicago, Ill. 13 16 lost
15. Forest City, Rockford, Ill 5 12 lost
24. Haymakers, Troy, N. Y. 12 7  
25. Mutuals, New York City, N. Y. 7 1  
26. Atlantics, Brooklyn, N. Y. 7 11 lost
Nov. 2. Mutuals, New York City, N. Y. 23 7  
5. Forest Citys, of Cleveland, O. 28 5  


Red Stockings

A contemporary print featuring the "first nine" of the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were the first openly professional baseball team (by a few months) in 1869 and, with the highest payroll in baseball, the New York Yankees of their day. Despite some mythmaking by succeeding generations, this team had nothing whatsoever to do with the later Cincinnati Reds except that both played in the same city.

Cincinnati Red Stockings Rosters
C John R. McLean
P Harry Wright
1B Arden
2B, OF Bellamy Storer
3B, LF Moses Grant 
SS John Con. Howe
RF George B. Ellard
CF J. William Johnson
LF, 1B J. Wayne Neff
3B Dave Schwartz
C Doug Allison
P, 2B Harry Wright
1B Charlie Gould
2B, P Asa Brainard
3B Fred Waterman
SS John Con. Howe
OF J. William Johnson
OF John Hatfield
OF Rufus King
OF Moses Grant
C Doug Allison
P, OF Asa Brainard
1B Charlie Gould
2B, P Harry Wright
3B Fred Waterman
SS, P George Wright
LF Andy Leonard
CF Charlie Sweasy
RF Cal McVey
Dick Hurley
  James Fowler
Oak Taylor
C Doug Allison
P Asa Brainard
1B Charlie Gould
2B Charlie Sweasy
3B Fred Waterman
SS George Wright
OF Andy Leonard
OF, P Harry Wright
OF Cal McVey
C, OF Dean
OF, P Atwater
Cincinnati Red Stockings Rosters

To learn much more about the Red Stockings, check out the 1907 book by Harry Ellard (his father George was the right fielder on the 1867 squad) called Base Ball in Cincinnati, which was our BaseballChronology Book of the Month for June, 2008.

The source for most of the story above is from Cincinnati Commercial articles of August 3, 1870 and November 25, 1870 and the October 1907 issue of Baseball Magazine. Most of the statistical information and rosters come from Marshall Wright's groundbreaking book, The National Association of Base Ball Players 1857-1870 (see bibliography below) and Charles Peverelly's American Pastimes. Any "rosters" are compiled from surviving boxscores and/or Wright's book and may not be complete and players may have played at more positions than indicated. Accounts and boxscores come from many sources including the New York Times, the Brooklyn Eagle, the New York Clipper, and Spirit of the Times: A Chronicle of the Turf, Agriculture, and Field Sports. Information on years of NABBP membership are from Henry Chadwick's Base-ball Manual for 1871. Read more about our NABBP sources.

National Association of Base Ball Players sources/bibliography:
Baseball: The Early Years by Harold Seymour.
Baseball Before We Knew It: A Search For The Roots Of The Game by David Block.
Baseball in Blue and Gray: The National Pastime during the Civil War by George B. Kirsch.
Baseball (1845-1881): From the newspaper accounts by Preston D. Prem
But Didn't We Have Fun?: An Informal History of Baseball's Pioneer Era, 1843-1870 by Peter Morris
Early Innings: A Documentary History by Dean A. Sullivan
The National Association of Base Ball Players, 1857-1870 by Marshall D. Wright.
Playing for Keeps: A History of Early Baseball by Warren Goldstein.
When Johnny Came Sliding Home: The Post-Civil War Baseball Boom, 1865-1870 by William J. Ryczek

General Baseball History sources/bibliography:
Baseball: A History of America's Game
by Benjamin G. Rader.
Baseball: A Film By Ken Burns (PBS DVD)
The Formation, Sometimes Absorption and Mostly Inevitable Demise of 18 Professional Baseball Organizations, 1871 to Present by David Pietrusza.
The Great 19th Century Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball, 2nd Edition by David Nemec.
Early Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball, 1825-1908 by Dean A. Sullivan.
Middle Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball, 1900-1948 by Dean A. Sullivan.
Late Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball 1945-1972 by Dean A. Sullivan
Past Time: Baseball as History by Jules Tygiel
America's National Game: Historic Facts Concerning the Beginning, Evolution, Development and Popularity of Baseball by Albert Spalding
Total Baseball: The Ultimate Baseball Encyclopedia by John Thorn, et al.


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Harry Wright built the Red Stockings in Cincinnati, then took them to Boston.

Courtesy LOC

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