"If you go out on your own terms, you do it like Stargell did, or Bench. But if you say, 'I want to play this game as long as I can,' then you understand you're not going to leave on your own terms."
--Jim Kaat, former Cardinals pitcher on Steve Carlton's forced retirement
Early 'Base-ball' Terminology
By Patrick Mondout
While reading contemporary accounts of games from the mid 1850s can
make the game that was played then seem more like the one we play today
than it actually was, such accounts usually contain terms that are very
unfamiliar to us today. To make matters worse, statistics that a modern
fan can appreciate, such as batting average, earned run average, and OPS,
simply do not exist for teams/players prior to 1871.
This era is far too interesting for any real fan of the sport to allow
such obstacles to keep them from enjoying this neglected era; this page is
an attempt to provide definitions for these terms and and to provide an
explanation for what statistics were kept from 1857-1870 and what they
mean. I have added Henry Chadwick's "Technical Terms" from his
1868 book on baseball and some more from his
If you have any questions about any of the material presented here or
wish to add to the list, use the Contact link at the top-right of
Base Ball Terms
run, as in scoring a run. The objective of the pre-1857 Knickerbocker
Rules game was to score 21 "aces."
PLAYERS—Amateurs are divided into two classes of players
in base ball, the first class of amateurs being players who play in
matches for exercise and amusement only, and who are "amateurs"
merely in contradistinction to "professionals." The second class
of amateur players are those unskilled in playing the game, but who know
more of it than the "Muffins" do. This class of players rank
between muffins and second nine players. See
term is applied to the play of those of a nine who assist other players in
putting au opponent out. Thus, if a ball be hit to the short-stop, and it
be stopped by him and thrown to the first base player, he is credited with
assisting the base player to put a hand out. The last man to hold a ball,
when an opponent is put out, is the player credited with the fielding. In
many instances the assistant does the most difficult fielding.
most experienced players of a nine come under this head, viz., such as are
not only physically active and expert, but mentally quick, and shrewd in
judgment of the "points" in the game.
balk is committed when the pitcher fails to deliver a bail after making
any of the preliminary movements to deliver it. Or, if he steps outside
the lines of his position, before the ball leaves his hand, when in the
act of pitching. Or, if he jerks or throws the ball to the batsman.
club (of any ball sport) comprised of members who may or may not play (see
playing member and non-playing member). If you go back early enough, the
term actually refers to the bat used in bat and ball games. The following
example of the latter usage is from an 1835 book called The Memoir of
Rev. Alvan Hyde: "I hope you will not be seen with the ball-club
in your hand this summer. Find your pleasure and amusement in your
base lines are the lines running from base to base, intersecting at the
center of each base when the bases are in position.
three fielders who attend to the first, second, and third bases.
player on the batting side running the bases.
are the players who occupy the positions of first, second, and third
BASES ON ERRORS—When
a base is made by a muffed or dropped ball, or by an overthrow, the
batsman is not entitled to the credit of a base on a hit.
BASES ON HITS—A
base is made on a hit when the batsman hits a ball that cannot be fielded
in time to the first base to put him out.
striker at the bat.
blank score is made in a match when no runs are scored in an inning; and
the batsman makes a blank score when he fails to scores a run in a match.
"blind" is the provincial term in the Middle States for a blank
score in a game.
is the technical term for a bounding ball from the bat which strikes the
ground within the lines of the in-field.
ball cannot be bowled in base ball. If a ball be bowled—that is, rolled
along the ground, or tossed in so as to touch the ground before reaching
the base—the umpire is empowered to call balls on the pitcher every time
a ball is so bowled. (By 1871 the umpire could call a balk on bowled
called ball is the penalty inflicted on the pitcher for unfair delivery.
Three called balls give a base.
early ball game similar to baseball. See
also: Town Ball.
player is said to be caught napping when he is touched with the ball when
off a base he was previously standing upon; or, when caught between two
bases obliging him to run backward and forward to escape being touched. He
is regarded, too, as being caught napping when he is outwitted in a point
of play by his opponent.
"chances," in base ball, are the opportunities offered by the
pitching, for putting players out in the field. That pitching is the most
effective Which affords the most chances for catches or for putting
players out at first base.
would today simply be called a relief pitcher. Example usage: "The
Baltimore Club has a one-armed pitcher, and he was batted so severely by
the Troys that big Brouthers had to go in as change."
team that fails to score a run is said to have been "Chicagoed."
(On July 23, 1870, the White Stockings of Chicago were shutout by the
Mutuals of New York 9-0. It was one of the first shutouts (though the
White Stockings had blanked the Atlantics of Algiers, Louisiana 51-0 in
May) and thus became well-known. For many years teams that were shut-out
or even just held to a few runs were said to have been "Chicagoed"
in honor of the Mutuals' accomplishment.) See
CLEAN HOME RUNS—A
home run is made, in a literal sense, when the batsman—after hitting a
fair ball—runs around the bases without stopping and touches the home
base before being put out. Bat a "clean home run" is only made
when the batsman hits a ball far enough out of the reach of the
out-fielders as to enable him to run round to home base before the bail
can be returned in quick enough to put him out. None other should be
scored on the record as home runs.
term "fan" was not invented until well after the demise of the
NABBP. Those who followed the sport with interest were known as cranks or
is the term applied to a low pitched ball, hit sharply along the surface
of the ground, through the grass, without rebounding to any extent. It is
a hit ball very difficult to field, and, consequently, shows good batting.
ball is said to be "dead" when no player can be legally put out
by a fielder, as in the case of a called or balked ball hit by the
batsman, or when a ball is stopped by outsiders.
double play is made when two players, after the ball is hit, are put out
in succession before it is again pitched to the bat.
the score is equal in a match, and five even innings have been played, and
there is no opportunity to play the game to a close, it becomes a drawn
game. And when a match of best two out of three games, is agreed upon, and
the season closes with each club credited with one game won, the match is
—A ball is called a dropped ball when it Is handled by a fielder, but
not held long enough to constitute a catch.
DROPPING THE PACE—This
term is applied when the pitcher lessens the speed of his delivery, and
substitutes a medium-paced ball for a swift one. It is very effective in
even innings have been played, each party have played an equal number of
innings. When a game is called, on account of darkness or rain, the
victory is decided by the score of the last "even innings"
played, provided five on each side have been completed.
FACING FOR A HIT—This
is done when the batsman takes his stand, facing the position in the field
he desires to send the ball. Thus, if he intends hitting a ball to third
base, he faces the shortstop; if to the center field, he faces the
pitcher, and if to the right field he faces the first base man.
fair ball is one sent from the bat and striking the ground forward of the
lines of the bases.
NINE—Refers to the starters of a particular club. See
also: Second Nine.
ball player, in order to learn to catch a ball well, should study the
theory of catching, as well as avail himself of constant practice. The
theory of catching is as follows : A ball hit up into the air by a bat, or
thrown up by the hand, falls to the ground with the same speed it left the
bat or the hand. Taking this fact into consideration, therefore, it will
be seen that in attempting to catch a ball falling swiftly to the ground,
to stop its progress with the hands abruptly results either in its rebound
from the hand, or, if held, in its causing injury or pain to the hands.
But a ball so falling can be stopped without pain and held firmly, by so
timing the movement of the hands as to grasp it as it falls, and allowing
the hands to check its progress gradually instead of abruptly. Toss a ball
up, by way of trial, and, as it falls, bring your hands together
horizontally, and time the movement so that your hands will close on the
ball at a right angle to the line of its fall, and the moment the ball is
grasped let your hands fall with a spring-like movement, and if this be
done properly the progress of the swiftest ball can be checked without any
pain or injury to the hand. But if the hands are placed in such manner,
when about to catch the ball, as simply to resist its progress abruptly,
then all the force of the blow of the ball is imparted to the hands. The
only way to catch a swiftly batted or thrown ball without risk of severe
pain or injury from the catch, is to grasp the ball in such a manner as to
yield to its progress and to check it gradually and not abruptly.
until the NABBP Convention of 1864, the rules stated that balls which were
caught on one bounce were considered outs. Any games prior to this that
were played by agreement with an out only counting on the fly were called
"fly games." Such games do not count as official NABBP games as
they were not played by official NABBP rules.
is a foul ball, just tipped by the bat, and held by the catcher sharp from
foul ball is one sent from the bat so as to hit the ground back of the
lines of the bases.
is a high foul ball caught on the fly.
FORCED FROM THE BASES—Players
running bases can only be forced to leave them when all are occupied, and
a fair ball is struck, or, when the first. base is occupied and a fair
ball is hit. If the first and third bases be occupied under these
circumstances, only the player at first base is forced to leave. If the
first base is not occupied, and the second and third are, then neither
base runner is obliged to leave his base when a ball is bit. When a third
called ball is called, then each player on a base has to take the next.
player is "forced off" a base when he is obliged to leave the
base he occupies, owing to the striker's
being obliged to run to first base.
to a match between two clubs which is not of consequence for any
championship or as part of a series.
is simply a method of affording the fielders exercise in catching the
ball. The batsman tosses the ball up and tries to send it to the outer
field, and the player catching it on the fly takes the bat. Of course it
is of no benefit as practice at the bat, as the ball does not come to the
bat as it does when delivered by a pitcher, but falls perpendicularly to
the bat, hitting it as it falls.
a ball is sent sharply from the bat and pretty close to the ground, it is
called a ground hit or a "grounder." It is an effective style of
batting, as most ground balls are difficult to field, and, of course,
cannot be caught flying.
is the old way of recording the outs in a match. Whenever a player is put
out, a "hand is lost," and an "out" is recorded in the
score books. (Alternate definition: This is
the old term applicable to the " outs " in a game. For instance,
the moment a player is put out, the batting side "lose a hand.")
is a term specially applied to the pitcher who is noted for his tact and
judgment in bothering his batting opponents by his pitching. A pitcher who
simply trusts to pace, in his delivery, for effect will never succeed with
skillful batsmen opposed to him. A pitcher, however, who uses head-work in
pitching tries to discover his adversary's weak points, and to tempt him
to hit at balls, either out of his reach or pitched purposely for him to
hit to a particular part of the field. Pitchers, in general, have greatly
improved in this respect within the past few years.
term, "a high one," refers to balls hit high in the air and
favorable for a fielder to catch. Long high balls are thought a great deal
of by the spectators at a match, but with a good captain and sharp
fielders every such ball ought to be caught.
the game for gambling interests. That is, playing the game to an outcome
in order to satisfy gamblers and/or betting rings. This usually meant
throwing a game.
runs are made when a call is hit out of the reach of the out-fielders, and
the home base is reached before the player is put out, provided he runs
around the bases without stopping. (See Clean Home Run.)
term is applied to halls sent very swiftly to the hands from the bat, or
thrown in swiftly.
are six in-fielders in a nine of a match, viz., catcher, pitcher, first,
second, and third base men, and shortstop.
innings, in base ball, is played when three men on the batting side have
been put out. The moment the third hand is out the innings terminates.
clubs were quite logically made up of younger players and, as a rule, were
denied membership in the NABBP (21 and older for delegates to the national
convention), though a few did gain admittance and those that didn't have
their own Junior NABBP.
phrase used to describe excessive arguing. Until late in the 19th Century,
the rules were inadequate to prevent "kicking" and it was
sometimes used as a tactic by the team in the lead to delay a game until
it was too dark to continue play.
is one of the terms used by the batsman, when he is requested to show the
pitcher where he wants a ball delivered. "Knee high,"
"waist high," and "shoulder high," are the three
points to which pitchers are most generally asked to deliver the ball.
LEFT ON BASES—Players
arc frequently left on the bases when the innings terminates, and, when
this is the case, they should be credited with it on the score book. Being
left on a base generally shows poor batting on the part of one or other of
the batsmen succeeding a base runner. But it also is a result of poor base
"line ball" or "liner " is a ball sent swiftly from
the bat to the field almost on a horizontal line. A catch from such a ball
looks handsome ; but it is not so difficult a ball to hold as high foul
balls, as the latter have a great bias given to them by the bat.
LINES OF POSITION—There
are three lines of position on the base ball field, viz., the line of the
home base, six feet in length, and parallel to the line from third to
first base; and the two lines of the pitcher's position, the same length
and similarly parallel, the first of these two lines being forty-five from
the home base, and the second forty-nine.
is the name of balls hit to the outer field. When they are sent bounding
along the ground they are telling hits, but when sent high they ought to
be caught, and are not, therefore, included as good hits.
is the term applied to balls pitched low over the home base and below the
knee of the batsman. TV striker has no right to demand a ball lower than a
foot high from the ground, as balls lower than this cannot be delivered by
the pitcher without his continually running the risk of sending in bowled
GAME—A game similar to "New York" baseball, but
favored in New England until the early 1860s. Some of the notable features
of this version of the game include the ability to pitch overhand, a
square field (instead of a diamond), no foul territory, one out retires
the side, and the first team to 100 runs wins. The rules were closer to
the New England game of town ball than the modern
game of baseball. Also known as: The "round game" and the
"New England game." You can read
more about this version of baseball here. See
also: New York Game.
fielder is said to "muff" a ball when he fails to pick it up
neatly, or to hold it long enough to make it a fair catch. Muffed balls
are rated as errors of fielding and count against a batsman when he makes
bases on them.
is the title of a class of ball players who are both practically and
theoretically unacquainted with the game. Some "muffins,"
however, know something about how the game should be played, but cannot
practically exemplify their theory. "Muffins" rank the lowest in
the grade of the nines of a club, the list including first
and second nine players, amateurs,
and, lastly, "muffins."
(Note: By 1871 Chadwick modified the definition of "muffin"
to this: This is a term applied to the
poorest class of fielders. A player may be able to hit long balls, and to
make home runs, and yet for all that be a veritable muffin, from the
simple fact that he cannot field, catch, or throw a ball decently.)
NEW YORK GAME—This
term refers to either the "New York" version of baseball such as
it was before the Knickerbockers published their rules. It also refers to
the game as transformed by the rules of the
Knickerbockers. Also known as the "Brooklyn Game." See
also: Massachusetts Game.
the early days, club played games without substitutes and were often
called "nines" for the number of players. Because they often had
a lot more than 9 members, the starters were referred to as the first
nine. The second nine would sometimes play
games against other "second nines," or against the first nine of
a lesser club.
member of a club who does not play in matches. Usually such members are
either not talented enough, do not have the time to devote to the sport,
or merely want to be associated with the club for its social
aspects. See also: Playing
ONE, TWO, THREE—This
term has a double meaning. It refers to a practice game when less than six
fielders on a side are present, and also to the order of going out, when
the first three batsmen in an inning retire in succession, in which case
they are said to be put out in "one, two, three" order. The game
of "One, two, three" is played as follows: The field side take
their positions and a player takes the bat. When the batsman is put out—unless
the ball is caught on the fly, in which case the fielder catching it
changes places with the batsman—he takes his position at right field,
the catcher takes the bat, the pitcher goes in to catch, and the first
baseman takes the pitcher's position, and each of the other fielders
advance one step towards the in-field positions. There should be at least
four players on the batting side.
ORDER OF POSITION—The
regular order of positions of a base ball nine is as follows: Catcher,
Pitcher, First Base, Second Base, Third Base, Short-stop, and Left,
Center, and Right Fields.
are three out-fielders in a club nine, viz.: the left, center, and right
score of outs refers to players put out by the fieldsmen, and the figures
to the number of times each player is put out in a match.
over-thrown ball is rated as an error of fielding, and, of course,
detracts from a batsman's score of bases on hits. Better hold a ball than
over-throw it to a base.
pitcher commits this error whenever lie pitches a ball over the heads of
the batsman and catchier. It is a mark of wild pitching resulting from too
great an effort to pitch swiftly.
is a term applied to the speed of a pitcher's delivery. Pitchers are
divided into three classes, viz., swift pitchers, medium-paced, and slow.
Creighton was the model pitcher as regards speed, and Martin is the best
medium-paced pitcher. Slow pitching is merely tossing the ball to the bat
in order that it may be hit high for a catch, and is only effective
against very poor batsmen, except, perhaps, when a change from swift to
slow pitching is made, when it sometimes proves serviceable.
ball "muffed" by the catcher, or passing him while within his
legitimate reach, is recorded as a passed ball, provided a base is made on
it by the base runner.
ad hoc team usually assembled for a single game. The first recorded
game of the Knickbockers was against a "picked nine"
are the two iron quoits placed on the two lines of the pitcher's position
on a line from home to second base.
member of the club who actually plays in matches. See
also: Non-Playing Member.
PLAYERS RUNNING BASES—The
moment the striker has hit a fair ball he ceases to be "the
striker" and becomes "a player running the bases."
term "points" in base ball refers to special points of play in
the game which occur most generally in first class matches. Thus, if there
be base runners on the first and second bases, and a ball be hit to the
short-stop, though the short-stop's chance of putting the striker out at
first base was an easy one, and that of heading off the player forced from
second base to third doubtful, the best point for him to play is, to hold
the ball on the third base, or to pass it in time to the third base man to
hold it, thereby putting the player out who is nearest home. Another
illustration of a "point" of play is this : When a base runner
is on the first base and a fair ball is hit to shortstop, and the latter,
seeing the base runner hold the first base, passes the ball to the first
base player quickly, the point of play, for the base player, is to first
touch the base runner on the base and then to hold the ball on the base.
By playing this point he puts two men out, inasmuch as the base runner,
even though standing on the base when touched, is out, in consequence of
being obliged to vacate the base, owing to the fart of the striker not
being put out; he Is, therefore, not entitled to the base, and, after he
has been touched, the striker can very easily be put out.
POPPING ONE UP—This
is done when a ball is hit high into the air and so as to fall into one of
the in-fielder's hands. It is as poor a hit as can well be made.
PUNISHING THE PITCHER—The
pitcher is said to be "punished," when the batsmen find no
difficulty in hitting away the balls he delivers to them. It does not
follow, however, that because the balls sent in are easily hit into the
field that the pitching is thereby punished, but only when the strikers
make their buses easily on their hits. We have seen ball after ball sent
in by pitchers and hit into the outer field with ease, but, unluckily for
the batsman, every one was caught. A pitcher is not " punished"
unless bases are made on the hits, neither is the pitching punished if
chances are offered to the fielders off the pitching and not accepted. It
is only when the balls pitched are so hit as to give the batsmen their
bases easily that the pitching is said to be punished.
is the term applied to all ball players who play base ball for money, or
as a means of livelihood. The rules prohibit players from receiving
compensation for their services in a match, but there is scarcely a club
of note that has not infringed the rule, or that does not nullify it now
in some form or other. If professionals would all act an honest part in
their position much of the objection against them would be removed. But,
as long as they are found to be, in a majority of cases, the mere tools of
"rings," or the servants of the gamblers who too frequently
influence leading contests, the prejudice against professionals will
naturally exist. There is no just reason except this, against a man's
earning his living by base ball service. [Note: the rules prohibiting pros
was changed after Chadwick wrote this definition. His 1871
definition was simply: "Any ball player
is a professional player who receives compensation for his services as a
player, either by money, place, or emolument."] See
pair of clubs would often play a pair of games with one at each club's
home grounds (we might today refer to it as "home and away"
series). The second game was referred to as the "return match."
for hire. Players who play for the highest bidder and who change teams
every season - or even during the season.
is the position in the field occupied by the tenth man in a match, as in
games on ice, his position being opposite to that of the regular
short-stop and between the first and second bases. When a game begins, and
no man is running the bases, the second baseman plays well into the field
as right short, and the short-stop covers second base, the third baseman
playing nearer short-stop's position.
"ring" is made when a party of men conspire together to effect
their object in a dishonorable manner. Thus, when a set of men connected
with a club join together and bribe players to sell games in order to win
bets, they are said to make up a "betting ring." These "
rings" are the worst evil that the game is troubled with, as from
them has sprung all the swindling and fraud which has made base ball
disreputable in the opinion of so many people who class good and bad
together, without any discrimination.
player is said to be run out when he is touched between the bases in
trying to get back to the base he left. In such cases, the fielder who
touches him with the ball has the credit of putting him out.
running catch is made when the ball is caught on the fly while the fielder
is on the run.
run is scored the moment the player touches the home base without being
put out, or without his being obliged to return to the base he left. When
two hands are out, however, a run does not count, even if the player
running home is not put out and touches the base, if the striker of the
ball—not the "striker" in the meaning of the rules—be put
out, or, if the player fails to touch the home base before the close of
"safe hit" is made when the ball is either sent hounding out of
reach of the in-fielders or sent similarly over their heads and yet not
far enough out to be caught by the outfielders. A ball hit over the heads
of the in-fielders, when the out-fielders are standing out a good
distance, is sure to give a base.
score of a game is the simple record of outs and runs, either of the game
or of a player.
baseball season ran from spring (whenever it was warm enough to begin
playing, though traditionally May 1st) until Thanksgiving, when the
grounds were often frozen.1
clubs of the middle 19th Century sometimes had hundreds of members. The
"first nine" were presumably the best players and represented
the club in important games. The "second nine" were presumably
of lesser skills and played against less important clubs or against their
own "first nine." In case you are wondering, there really were
rarely discussed "third nines," and since club membership
sometimes numbered in the hundreds, beyond the third as well. See
also: First Nine.
refers to a club with experienced players. It does not indicate a
club made of what would today be called senior citizens. See
also: Junior Club.
is a ball sent to the batsman shoulder high and is a difficult ball to
hit. But sonic batsmen send shoulder balls a good distance into the field,
and, when hit well, they are generally difficult balls to be caught by the
of the nines in a match game, or of the contesting parties in a scrub
match, constitutes the "side" in a game.
silver ball is a baseball that has been covered in silver as a trophy. In
context, it often refers to a match where such a ball is the prize. It was
quite common in the early days to have the game ball and dinner awarded to
the winner. As the practice evolved, the balls were covered in silver with
an inscription showing the date and score of the game. Sometimes a local
group would either ask two teams to compete for a silver ball or to even
open up a tournament to battle for such a ball.
is a slang term for a blank score. In New York a blank score is called a
"skunk," in the West it is called " whitewashing," and
iu the East a "blinder." The Western phrase is the best of the
three, but "a blank score" is the correct term.
is the technical term for the balls delivered by a slow pitcher. Slows are
tossed balls, sent in to the bat with a great curve to the line of
delivery. Slows, to be well punished, require to be waited for and judged
well, with a timely swing of the bat.
SOAKING THE RUNNER—The
rules of baseball-related games prior to the Knickerbocker
rules called for getting runners on base out by hitting them with the
ball while they were between bases. This was called "soaking"
the runner and apparently brought much joy to the thrower, though perhaps
less to the target. (Read such an account here.)
batsman is considered the "striker" until he has hit a fair
ball, when he becomes a player "running the bases."
the batsman is put out, after having failed to hit the ball fair three
times in succession, he is to be recorded on the score book as having
struck out, no matter whether put out on the catch or by the throw to the
term applies to the total score of the single innings played, or of the
even innings, or of the totals at the close of the match.
tie game occurs whenever the score is even at the close of the even
innings played. A tie game becomes a drawn game whenever the score is a
tie—after five innings have been played—and the game be called or
terminated either from rain, or the approach of darkness, or from a mutual
agreement to call it a drawn game.
TIMING A BALL—To
time a ball well is to cause your bat to meet it in such manner as to hit
the ball well in the center and in the very direction you intended to send
early bat and ball game similar to baseball. It is similar too, but not
the same as, the Massachusetts game. Philadelphia embraced it up until
1860. See also: Cat.
"treble play" is made when three players are put out after the
ball is hit, before it is pitched to the bat again. Thus, suppose there be
three players on the bases and a short ball be hit to the pitcher, and he
passes it to the catcher, and the latter holds it on the home base before
the player reaches it, and then passes it to the third base player, and he
similarly holds it, and, passing it on to second base, it be similarly
held there, the result would be that three players would be put out by the
one ball pitched, and a treble play thereby made.
This was Henry Chadwick's 1868 definition. A few years later it became
the more familiar:
Whenever three players are put out by the fielders, after a ball has been
pitched to the bat, and before it is again sent to the bat a, triple play
is said to be made.
umpire in a match is a referee, and sole judge of fair and unfair play
when not expressly defined by the rules. There is no appeal from his
decision, except through express charges brought before the Judiciary
Committee of the State Association.
are obliged to vacate their bases—that is, they cease to have any right
to hold them—the moment a fair ball is struck and all the bases arc
occupied. When the first base is occupied and a fair ball is struck, the
base runner must leave the first base, and he can be put out anywhere—even
when standing on the first base—until lie touches the second, unless the
striker is put out, in which case he ceases to be obliged to vacate his
base and can try and return to it, and must be touched by the ball, when
off the base, before he can be put out.
"whip-pennant" is what they called the flag that was awarded by
the National Association
and flown (or simply displayed) by the winner. This was shortened to
"pennant" in later years.
nine is said to he "whitewashed" when they are put out in an
inning without being able to score a single run. See
ball thrown beyond the reach of a fielder or base player, either to the
right or left of him, or over his head, is counted as a wild throw.
NOTES: 1.MLB recently announced the the final scheduled
games of the 2007 postseason are scheduled for early November (who will be
the first "Mr. November"?). If Bud Selig keeps it up, they too
will soon be ending their season around Turkey Day.
David Nemec, the tireless 19th Century Baseball
researcher, has also written a novel called Early
Dreams, which takes place during this era and features real-life characters
such as Cap Anson, George Wright, and Henry Lucas.
Our sites have always been by you and about you. If
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of 1970s TV shows, survivors of hurricanes or aircraft accidents, etc. from all over the world sharing their memories, asking
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others are saying.
Hall of Fame sportswriter Henry Chadwick did more than anyone in the 19th Century to document the ongoing history of the sport and promote what he saw as its best interests.
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