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National League

By Wikipedia

The term National League refers to the organization more properly referred to as the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, the older of the two leagues constituting Major League Baseball.

At a glance...
BALTIMORE MAJOR LEAGUE
League Facts
Established February 2, 1876
Presidents
Note 1
Morgan G. Bulkeley 1876-1876
William A. Hulbert 1877-1882
Arthur H. Soden 1882-1882
Abraham G. Mills 1883-1884
Nicholas E. Young 1885-1902
Harry C. Pulliam 1903-1909
John A. Heydler 1909-1909
Thomas J. Lynch 1910-1913
John K. Tener 1913-1918
John A. Heydler 1918-1934
Ford C. Frick 1934-1951
Warren C. Giles 1951-1969
Charles S. Feeney 1970-1986
A. Bartlett Giamatti 1986-1989
William D. White 1989-1994
Leonard Coleman, Jr. 1994-1999

Beginning with the 1903 season, the regular season champions of the two leagues have met annually in the World Series, with the exception of 1904 and 1994. Through the 2005 season, National League teams have won 41 and lost 60 of the 101 World Series played, although the Nationals have a rather better percentage of 28 wins and 34 losses if you take away the New York Yankees.

See also: American League, Defunct Leagues.

The National League was formed in 1876 when six of the strongest teams of the National Association withdrew from that organization (effectively killing it) to form a new league with stronger executive authority. The teams were: the Athletic of Philadelphia (folded in 1876), the Boston Red Caps (now the Atlanta Braves), the Chicago White Stockings (now the Cubs), the Hartford Dark Blues (folded in 1877), the Mutual of New York (folded in 1876), and the St. Louis Brown Stockings (folded in 1877). They were joined by two others, the Cincinnati Red Stockings (folded in 1880), and the Louisville Grays (folded in 1877). The league president's authority was tested the first season, when the Athletic and Mutual clubs refused to make western road trips later in the season, and were expelled from the N.L., which operated as a six-team league for the next two seasons.

The new league encountered its first rival organization, when the American Association began play in 1882. The A.A. offered cheaper ticket prices ("quarter ball") and Sunday baseball and alcoholic beverages where one or both were legal. The National League and American Association participated in an early version of the World Series seven times during their ten-year coexistence, though the series were only exhibition games arranged by the teams involved. The N.L. won most of those encounters, while some ended in ties due to disputes or other issues.

After the 1891 season, the A.A. disbanded and merged with the N.L., which became known legally for the next decade or so as the "National League and American Association". The teams now known as the Cincinnati Reds, Los Angeles Dodgers and Pittsburgh Pirates had already switched from the A.A. to the N.L. prior to 1892. With the merger the N.L. absorbed the team now known as the St. Louis Cardinals, along with three other teams which did not survive into the 20th century.

The National League became a 12-team circuit with monopoly status for the rest of the decade. The league became embroiled in numerous internal conflicts, not the least of which was a plan supported by some owners (and bitterly opposed by others) to form a "trust," wherein there would be one common ownership of all twelve N.L. teams. The N.L. used its monopoly power to force a $2,400 limit on annual player wages in 1894.

Then, the league contracted to eight teams for the 1900 season, eliminating its teams in Baltimore, Cleveland, Louisville, and Washington. This provided an opportunity for competition. Three of those cities received franchises in the new American League in 1901. The A.L. declined to renew its National Agreement membership when it expired, and on January 28, 1901, officially declared itself a second major league. By 1903, the upstart A.L. had located teams in Boston, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, and St. Louis. Only the Cincinnati Reds and Pittsburgh Pirates had no A.L. team in their markets.

The National League at first refused to recognize the new league, but reality set in as talent and money drained away to the new league. After two years of bitter contention a new version of the National Agreement was signed in 1903. This meant formal acceptance of each league by the other as an equal partner in major league baseball.

After the contraction to eight teams in 1900, the National League consisted of the same eight teams in the same cities until 1953, when the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee. The team later moved to Atlanta in 1966. In 1958, the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants moved to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively, bringing major league baseball to the West Coast of the U.S. for the first time.

The N.L. remained an eight-team league until 1962, when it added the New York Mets and the Houston Colt .45s (renamed the Houston Astros in 1965). In 1969 the league added the San Diego Padres and the Montreal Expos (now the Washington Nationals), becoming a 12-team league for the first time since 1899. In 1993 the league expanded again, adding the Colorado Rockies and the Florida Marlins. In 1998, the Arizona Diamondbacks became the league's fifteenth franchise, and the Milwaukee Brewers moved from the American League to the National, to make the National League the 16-team league it is today.

As a result of expansion to 12 teams in 1969, the National League, which for the first 93 years of its existence competed equally in a single grouping, reorganized into two divisions of six teams (East and West), with the division champions meeting in the National League Championship Series (an additional round of postseason competition) for the right to advance to the World Series. Beginning with the 1994 season, the league has been divided into three divisions (East, West, and Central), with the addition of a wild card team (the team with the best record among those finishing in second place) to enable four teams to advance to the preliminary National League Division Series.

Often characterized as being a more "traditional" or "pure" league, the National League (as of 2005 at least) has never adopted the designated hitter rule as did the American League in 1973. In theory, this means the role of the N.L. manageris somewhat expanded in comparison to the A.L., because the manager must take offense into account when making pitching substitutions and vice versa. There are perceived to be fewer home runs and big offensive plays due to the presence of the pitcher in the batting order, although this is not always the case.

For the first 96 years of its coexistence with the American League, National League teams faced their A.L. counterparts only in exhibition games or in the World Series. Beginning in 1997, however, interleague games have been played during the regular ("championship") season, and count in the standings.

Through the 2005 season, the Dodgers have won the most National League pennants (21, plus one A.A. pennant), followed closely by the Giants (20) and Cardinals (16, plus 4 A.A. pennants). Among National League teams, the Cardinals have won the most World Series (9) followed by the Dodgers (6), Pirates (5) and Giants (5).

Charter franchises (1876)

The original eight charter teams were the following:

Post-AA merger (1892)

Many franchises came and went between 1876 and 1892 when the National League absorbed the American Association. In 1892 the twelve teams in what---for a time---was termed the "National League and American Association" were the following:

After the 1899 season, the league contracted for the first time since 1877, dropping four clubs and leaving eight teams which would stay in place for over 50 years.

Contraction, Expansion and Relocation since 1892

  • 1900: Baltimore Orioles, Cleveland Spiders, Louisville Colonels, and Washington Nationals are all expelled from the National League
  • 1953: Boston Braves move to Milwaukee
  • 1958: Brooklyn Dodgers move to Los Angeles and New York Giants move to San Francisco
  • 1962: Houston Colt .45s and New York Mets enfranchised
  • 1966: Milwaukee Braves move to Atlanta
  • 1969: Montreal Expos and San Diego Padres enfranchised
  • 1993: Colorado Rockies and Florida Marlins enfranchised
  • 1998: Arizona Diamondbacks enfranchised
  • 1998: Milwaukee Brewers withdraw from the American League and join the National League
  • 2005: Montreal Expos move to Washington, renamed the Washington Nationals

Current NL Teams

National League West

National League Central

  • Chicago Cubs enfranchised 1874 in National Association, joined National League as Charter Member (1876)
  • Cincinnati Reds enfranchised 1882 in American Association, joined National League (1890)
  • Houston Astros enfranchised 1962
  • Milwaukee Brewers enfranchised 1969 as the Seattle Pilots in American League, moved to Milwaukee (1970), joined N.L. (1998)
  • Pittsburgh Pirates enfranchised 1882 in American Association, joined National League (1887)
  • St. Louis Cardinals enfranchised 1882 in American Association, joined National League (1892)

National League East

NOTES:
1. The office of National League President was eliminated in 1999, although Bill Giles, son of former NL President Warren C. Giles, currently holds the title of honorary National League president.

American League sources/bibliography:
National League Story, The by Lee Allen
The History of National League Baseball, Since 1876 by Glenn Dickey
The Formation, Sometimes Absorption and Mostly Inevitable Demise of 18 Professional Baseball Organizations, 1871 to Present by David Pietrusza.
May the Best Team Win: Baseball Economics and Public Policy by Andrew Zimbalist.
Total Baseball: The Ultimate Baseball Encyclopedia by John Thorn, et al.


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SENIOR CURCUIT

As the older of the two Major Leagues, the NL is known as the Senior Curcuit.

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